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ADF was useful in several ways, but never so useful as to introduce me to the Proto-Indo-European word *ghosti. *Ghosti can be interpreted loosely as hospitality, but more correctly indicates an equitable exchange between parties. One can have *ghosti in one’s relationship with others, with a business partner, with other business associates, and even with strangers.

*Ghosti is very tightly bound with the concept of community, but assumes a wider definition of community than one might normally be familiar with. As I said in the previous post, community includes the spirits involved, which may include Gods, one’s own Ancestors, the Ancestors of close friends, and the spirits that commonly inhabit the area, as well as other spirits that a given adherent might work with. In addition to this possibly long list, community in relation to *ghosti also includes visitors to one’s home, traders, those bearing news or messages, and so forth. *Ghosti can even be applied to enemies, such as the idea of an eye for an eye, but it can equally be applied to the idea of repaying evil with kindness – much depends on the situation.

To have *ghosti is to treat someone with respect, but it is also to foster good relations of friendship and partnership with your equals, to keep your word when you give it, to respect the role of those in a position of authority, and to show generosity freely to those less fortunate than yourself.  The relationship between crime and punishment is also part of the idea of *ghosti, though the actual perpetration of crime and punishment is still a function of society, not necessarily religion. Part of the whole point is to foster community ties. To show *ghosti is not always reciprocated, but to have *ghosti means that the relationship works in a way that is more or less equitable to all involved. It can be seen easily in the phrases, “Pay it forward,” and, “It all comes out in the wash.”

In the Pagan community, especially among Reconstructionists, this concept (regardless of what we actually call it) is one we are desperately trying to recapture and hold in our lives. We look at the process of government and see corruption and misrepresentation. We look at the process of business and see hundreds of hard workers fired because labor is cheaper overseas, or because they are getting older and accruing raises and hiring younger specialists out of college is cheaper. We see neighbors no longer speaking, prices getting disproportionately higher for the same services, and dinners getting disproportionately smaller for the same price. All of these things have bothered Pagans since Neopaganism started. None of these are examples of *ghosti. The unfortunate side effect is, there isn’t much that can be done about most of it. As we believe the practice of hospitality and fairness begins in our own lives, we start with treating the members of our community as we believe it should be, answering kindness with kindness, and hurt with firmness. We keep our word when we give it, as best as we possibly can (as in, if we can’t, we’re likely in the hospital, or dead). We deal honestly with others that keep their words, and for those that don’t, we don’t deal with them at all. For now, the scope of community is fairly limited on the whole, though there are those of us who include our neighbors, business associates, and others, as well.

Obviously, as one can have *ghosti with other physical beings, one should also have *ghosti with the spirits. This is especially so with the Gods; if your attempts at *ghosti aren’t reciprocated with a God, then it is not very likely you should be working with him or her. In the same manner, if the Gods are keeping you alive and safe and lucky happenstances are occurring often, it seems to me to be a good idea to throw in a little extra during offering, or to at the very least acknowledge and appreciate the help. In *ghosti, it’s not what you’re giving, or how much, it’s that you’re giving something that is equitable to what you’re receiving. If you’ve been blessed with abundance, and your gifts to them are very stingy or given in a miserly way, then that’s not reaching for *ghosti with your Gods, that’s throwing a token gesture, lip service. If on the other hand you give cheerfully and from that which you yourself treasure, then it is likely to be a more acceptable gift. (We’ll get into specifics on offerings in a later post.)

*Ghosti is the act and practice of an exchange of energies between the parties involved. One’s efforts, one’s offerings, one’s attempts at fairness with another, and even one’s respect for another all play an important role in the practice of this concept. Ultimately, the energy given is of the gift given, or of how one is treated. This facilitates the simplest of interactions in our communities and with our Gods, that of respect and responsible action. In many ways, most of the virtues that Pagans espouse (discussion to come) stem from this central concept.


One of the most obvious misunderstandings between myself and Christians is the whole, “I know you don’t believe this,” thing. They assume that, because I am not Christian, that I do not believe in the God they pray to or that Jesus was a real person. I find this most commonly among family; in fact, it is because of a recent conversation with a family member that I’m writing on this.

Let me set the record straight. Just because I do not believe your God is who you or He says He is does not mean I deny His existence entirely. Just because I do not subscribe to Christian cosmology or symbolism does not mean I think Jesus did not exist. Just because your God is not among the Gods I worship does not mean I have a problem with your prayers to that God for my health and safety. It is the same if another Pagan were to pray to Apollo on my behalf – I don’t really deal with Apollo, but if He’s inclined to help me with something, I’m not the idiot going to say, “Uh, no, you’re not MY God, YOU can’t do a thing!!!”

This, I think, is a major difference between a monotheistic and a polytheistic/animistic viewpoint. I know many Christians who would be offended if I prayed to Freyja on their behalf for their health and safety, especially considering the “One God” standpoint. At the most benign, to them, praying to Freyja is fruitless, as she does not exist in their paradigm. On the other end of the spectrum, it’s praying to a “false god”, AKA the Devil, which is inherently bad and evil and wrong.

On the other side, you have the type of polytheist I am, which does not only acknowledge multiple Gods, but multiple pantheons, as well. The “Christian Pantheon”, consisting of YHVH, Yeshua (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit (and possibly the Devil, angels, and saints, depending on sect), exists to me, but separately from the pantheons I adhere to. I don’t belong to YHVH, I belong to Freyja. It’s like being a citizen of a whole different spiritual country. I don’t appeal to YHVH because I’m not His, nor do I expect someone who is Christian to appeal to any of my deities. However, Freyja can and does allow YHVH to intercede in my affairs when my Christian relatives or friends pray for me, and I and my allies among the spirits see nothing wrong with this arrangement.

To the Neopagan Animist, Gods and Goddesses are spirits, separate and individual. The Christian doctrine of the Trinity does not countermand this, because ultimately, that God is still separate from the other pantheons of spirits that exist, as He should be – God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, even if the three are one, is still not Freyja or Gwydion. However, I don’t believe that the Christian concept of God is the same as the all-encompassing entity in which we live, which is also a spirit, greater and further apart from human understanding than any God. To me, God is not the universe, God is a part of it. (This is not to say anyone will agree with me on this point; as I said, I believe in a different cosmology than the one accepted by most Christians.)

This viewpoint also does not make Christian doctrine obsolete in my understanding; rather, I see Christian doctrine as applying to God’s (YHVH’s) chosen, of which Pagans are not a part. Jesus calls his own; of those He calls, some do not follow, and instead choose wickedness in His sight. This does not mean Jesus calls everyone, I don’t care what Saul says. This is the ultimate difference: the assumption seems to be that if you believe YHVH exists, you MUST inherently believe everything written about Him in that accepted paradigm. Wars have been fought over this assumption. Friendships have been torn apart over something as simple as the acceptance of the Trinity, or the nature of the Eucharist. To me, this assumption simply isn’t true. First of all, I don’t believe everything written about my Gods, and I don’t need to – my experiences with them are enough. Second, I have had enough of my beliefs blown wide open to know it is better to interpret beliefs to fit experience, rather than interpreting experiences to fit beliefs. My experiences of land spirits and nature kin, fey and otherworldly beings, and many other kinds of spirits weren’t even possible in the Christian paradigm I was brought up in, so I had to expand my own understanding of things. In doing so, I came to the conclusion (however erroneous others may believe it to be) that YHVH was not the overarching spirit that He was publicized to be, but rather one of many, albeit with quite a bit of power behind Him (1000 years of being the dominant deity in a decent-sized chunk of the world will do that).

It’s hard for me to explain how this misunderstanding can be insulting. Speaking more specifically here, you telling me that you’re praying for me, and then saying something to the effect of, “but I know you don’t believe in it,” makes me sound more like an atheist or an anti-Christian, rather than what I am. Ultimately, I am writing this post to get across that praying for me, to whatever God or Goddess you choose to, is not an insult, and why would it be? You are asking for intercession for me from a deity who might otherwise not even think twice of me! I’m cool with that!

Granted, not all intercession will be desired, or wanted, or accepted. Anyone praying for me to accept Christ into my heart: Freyja WILL take exception to that. Sort of. Okay, that’s a complicated situation. Anybody praying for me to kick the bucket: Freyja WILL fight that tooth and claw. Why? I dunno, I think she likes me or something. Or maybe it’s because that, like Christians belong to Christ, I belong to her! But, I digress. Most of my family and friends are praying for my health and safety, or to help me find a job, or something along those lines. Why would Freyja try to block that? She’s on my side! Why would I want to counter that? It’s help! I don’t even think YHVH would be too upset about that: He’s helping His flock by helping me, when His chosen pray for me. The same goes for Freyja, or Herne, or Gwydion if I prayed to them for one of my friends or family: they would help those I pray for because in doing so, they are helping me; it’s part of the *ghosti relationship I have with them. I give them praise and offerings for being there for me; they give me and mine aid and help when needed. We work together.

So, it is hard for me to explain how this misunderstanding can be insulting, but I feel it’s important that at least some of the Christians I deal with understand that fact. Hey, if you feel so inclined, pray for me! I’m glad that I rate up there in your thoughts and your prayers. Why do you think I would not understand that your deity is important to you, and makes real change in your life? Being your family (or friend), I’m a part of that life, which means, for good or ill, that your deity still affects me whether I belong to that deity or not. That is my standpoint – that my beliefs do not necessitate a lack of prayer on my behalf. That I believe in your prayers. That I believe that, even if your deity is not mine, He (or She) may still intercede in my life if you ask, because you ask.

Quote of the Day

"The Lord tells me He can get me out of this mess, but he's pretty sure you're f***ed".
-Stephen, Braveheart